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Menjawab Tuduhan Pernikahan Nabi Muhammad S.A.W dengan Zainab binti Jash

Tuduhan:

Zainab berasal dari keluarga terhormat sementara Zaid hanyalah seorang bekas budak. Setelah menikah, terjadi ketidakharmonisan dalam rumah tangga Zaid dan Zainab. Hal ini membuktikan bahwa Allah SWT melakukan blunder pada pernikahan Zaid dan Zainab. Dan juga Muhammad sebenarnya menyukai Zainab. Lalu Zainab membenci Zaid dan ingin dinikahi oleh Muhammad. Karena dua-duanya suka-sama suka, maka Muhammad main mata pada Zainab dan menikahinya.


Jawaban

1. Keotentikan narasi cerita versi dari Tabari dipertanyakan. Silahkan baca: http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Polemics/sverses.html (Tabari's Disclaimer).

Syekh Hammudah Abdallati mengatakan:

Some of the Prophet's marriages were for legislative reasons and to abolish certain corrupt traditions. Such was his marriage to Zaynab, divorcee of the freed slave Zayd. Before Islam, the Arabs did not allow divorcees to remarry. Zayd was adopted by the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and called his son as was the custom among the Arabs before Islam. But Islam abrogated this custom and disapproved of its practice. Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) was the first man to express this disapproval in a practical way. So he married the divorcee of his "adopted" son to show that adoption does not really make the adopted child a real son of the adopting father and also to show that marriage is lawful for divorcees. Incidentally, this very Zaynab was Muhammad's cousin, and had been offered to him in marriage before she married Zayd. He refused her then, but after she was divorced he accepted her for the two legislative purposes: the lawful marriage of divorcees and the real status of adopted children. The story of this Zaynab has been associated in some minds with ridiculous fabrications regarding the moral integrity of Muhammad. These vicious fabrications are not even worth considering here (see Qur'an, 33: 36, 37, 40). (Source: Islam in Focus, p.177-179 by Hammudah Abdallati, bold and underlined emphasis ours)

Masalah disini jika nabi SAW sejak semula tertarik dengan Zainab, mengapa dahulu tidak dikawini sendiri oleh nabi, akan tetapi malah dikawinkan dengan Zaid? Nabi SAW sendiri juga tidak pernah main mata:
  • Sunan Abu Dawud Book 38, Number 4346: Narrated Sa'd ibn AbuWaqqas: On the day of the conquest of Mecca, Abdullah ibn Sa'd ibn AbuSarh hid himself with Uthman ibn Affan. He brought him and made him stand before the Prophet (peace_be_upon_him), and said: Accept the allegiance of Abdullah, Apostle of Allah! He raised his head and looked at him three times, refusing him each time, but accepted his allegiance after the third time. Then turning to his companions, he said: Was not there a wise man among you who would stand up to him when he saw that I had withheld my hand from accepting his allegiance, and kill him? They said: We did not know what you had in your heart, Apostle of Allah! Why did you not give us a signal with your eye? He said: It is not advisable for a Prophet to play deceptive tricks with the eyes.
2. Alasan nabi SAW menikahi Zainab sebenarnya lebih bersifat social construct. Zaid bukanlah anak dari rasulullah tapi mantan anak angkat. Demikian pula Zainab bukan menantu nabi SAW.
  • Allah sekali-kali tidak menjadikan bagi seseorang dua buah hati dalam rongganya; dan Dia tidak menjadikan istri-istrimu yang kamu zhihar itu sebagai ibumu, dan Dia tidak menjadikan anak-anak angkatmu sebagai anak kandungmu (sendiri). Yang demikian itu hanyalah perkataanmu dimulutmu saja. Dan Allah mengatakan yang sebenarnya dan Dia menunjukkan jalan (yang benar). Panggilah mereka (anak-anak angkat itu) dengan (memakai) nama bapak-bapak mereka; itulah yang lebih adil pada sisi Allah, dan jika kamu tidak mengetahui bapak-bapak mereka, maka (panggilah mereka sebagai) saudara-saudaramu seagama dan maula-maulamu.. (QS. 33:4-5)
Berikut komentar dari Syaik Maududi

In this connection, an important thing that needed to be reformed was the question of the adoption of a son. Whoever was adopted by the Arabs as a son was regarded as one of their own offspring: he got share in inheritance; he was treated like a real son and real brother by the adopted mother and the adopted sister; he could not marry the daughter of his adopted father and his widow after his death. And the same was the case if the adopted son died or divorced a wife. The adopted father regarded the woman as his real daughter-in-law. This custom clashed in every detail with the laws of marriage and divorce and inheritance enjoined by Allah in Surahs Al-Baqarah and An-Nisa. It made a person who could get no share in inheritance entitled to it at the expense of those who were really entitled to it....[skipped] 

 ...That is why the Islamic law of marriage and divorce, the law of inheritance and the law of the prohibition of adultery required that the concept and custom of regarding the adopted son as the real son should be eradicated completely...[skipped]

 .... Therefore, it was inevitable that the custom should be eradicated practically, and through the Holy Prophet himself. For no Muslim could ever conceive that a thing done by the Holy Prophet himself, and done by him under Allah's Command, could be detestable. Therefore, a little before the Battle of the Trench, the Holy Prophet was inspired by Allah that he should marry the divorced wife of his adopted son, Zaid bin Harithah (may Allah be pleased with him), and he acted on this Command during the siege of the Bani Quraizah. (The delay probably was caused for the reason that the prescribed waiting period had not yet ended, and in the meantime the Holy Prophet had to become busy in the preparation for war).

Verses 36-48 deal with the Holy Prophet's marriage with Hadrat Zainab. In this section the opponents' objection about this marriage have been answered; the doubts that were being created in the minds of the Muslims have been removed; the Muslims have been acquainted with the Holy Prophet's position and status; and the Holy Prophet himself has been counseled to exercise patience on the false propaganda of the disbelievers and the hypocrites.

3. Allah SWT tidak melakukan blunder dalam ayat 33:36 karena waktu ayat ini turun justru konteksnya masyarakat Quraisy tidak dapat menerima perubahan tradisi. Tetapi dengan turunnya ayat ini hakekatnya justru menunjukkan bahwa Allah SWT telah menyediakan semacam batu loncatan awal/pembuka hutan untuk mendobrak tradisi berikutnya.

Sungguhpun begitu ia merasa tidak perlu memaksa wanita lain untuk itu di luar keluarganya. Biarlah Zainab bt. Jahsy, sepupunya sendiri itu juga yang menanggung, yang karena telah meninggalkan tradisi dan menghancurkan adat-lembaga Arab, menjadi sasaran buah mulut orang tentang dirinya, suatu hal yang memang tidak ingin didengarnya. Juga biarlah Zaid, bekas budaknya yang dijadikannya anak angkat, dan yang menurut hukum adat dan tradisi Arab orang yang berhak menerima waris sama seperti anak-anaknya sendiri itu, dia juga yang mengawininya. Maka dia pun bersedia berkorban, karena sudah ditentukan oleh Tuhan bagi anak-anak angkat yang sudah dijadikan anaknya itu. Biarlah Muhammad memperlihatkan desakannya itu supaya Zainab dan saudaranya Abdullah b. Jahsy juga mau menerima Zaid sebagai suami. Dan untuk itu biarlah firman Tuhan juga yang datang:

Dari surah 33:36-38 berdasar komentar dari Syaik Maududi, nabi SAW/Islam telah merombak tradisi jahiliyah bahwa anak angkat tidak lagi mendapat warisan, dan seorang muslim dapat mengawini mantan istri dari anak angkat.

Di ayat 33:36, Allah SWT telah memecah tradisi Arabiyah bahwa seseorang muslim dapat mengawini muslim lain tanpa dibedakan status. Dan di ayat 33:37, kedua-kalinya Islam mendobrak tradisi Arab jika seorang istri dapat diceraikan oleh suaminya (dalam hukum Islam) dan juga mantan istri anak angkat mempunyai status dapat dikawin. (Sejarah Hidup Muhammad oleh Muhammad Husain Haekal BAGIAN KETUJUH BELAS: ISTERI-ISTERI NABI)

4. Kalimat "sedang kamu menyembunyikan di dalam hatimu apa yang Allah akan menyatakannya, dan kamu takut kepada manusia" adalah rahasia yang tak dikatakan bahwa nabi SAW kelak akan menikahi Zainab atau nabi SAW tidak mau mengatakan hal ini. Jadi bukannya nabi menyembunyikan nafsunya pada Zainab. Yang ditakutkan nabi adalah penilaian masyarakat karena nabi (bakal) menikahi Zainab, yg mantan istri anak angkatnya.

Sedang kalimat "supaya tidak ada keberatan bagi orang mukmin untuk (mengawini) isteri-isteri anak-anak angkat mereka" itu maksudnya juga bukan masyarakat mukmin yg keberatan, akan tetapi pengertiannya adalah: "supaya orang-orang muslim selanjutnya (muslim yang lain di jaman nabi) tahu bahwa mengawini bekas istri anak angkatnya hukumnya diperbolehkan dalam Islam" alias HALAL. Jadi intinya ayat 33:37 adalah seorang muslim dapat menikahi istri terdahulu dari anak yg diadopsi, jika sudah diceraikan dan nabi telah ditetapkan oleh Allah SWT sebagai pelopornya (apa para sahabat cukup pantas melakukannya, apalagi ini terjadi dilingkungan "keluarga" rasul?).
  • [Rashad Khalifa] The prophet is not committing an error by doing anything that is made lawful by GOD. Such is GOD's system since the early generations. GOD's command is a sacred duty. (QS. 33:38)
5. Apakah benar bahwa orang-orang sebelum nabi SAW dapat menikahi wanita dari mantan anak angkatnya semisal kasus Zaid? Bukti Bibel ternyata menunjukkannya:
  • Deuteronomy 25:5
    (MKJV) If brothers live together, and one of them dies and has no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry outside to a stranger. Her husband's brother shall go in to her and take her as a wife for himself, and perform theb duty of a husband's brother to her.
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